Donegal

All hands to the Pumps

When I decided to write this article I was not entirely sure I should. On Easter Monday I was gripped by the unfolding story of a massive, dangerous gorse fire spreading across the Rosses, a part of West Donegal. It worried that it would get completely out of hand and burn down people’s homes and destroy their livelihoods. I was checking twitter and my newsfeed for news of what was happening on an hourly basis to see if the fire had been brought under control. I was also worried about our own house in the Rosses. I love the area very much and feel attached to it. Yet, I felt guilty of being an outsider, what my husband calls a “Sasanach” (Saxon) or a “blow in” to the area only concerned about my house when brave local people were fighting desperately to quell the fires and save their homes. Actually, I was full of admiration for the community spirit and sheer grit and determination of the local people to fight the fire and save each other’s homes. 

Donegal is often called the “forgotten county” on account of the belief that it is ignored by the government of Ireland, even in times of crisis. Maybe it’s because it’s so far away from the capital Dublin, or because of its location on the border with “troubled” Northern Ireland. On Monday that perception seemed to be borne out by events.

It had been an unseasonably warm Easter weekend. It was the warmest for 70 years. This followed on from the warmest Irish winter on record, that was also drier than average. Unfortunately, this has dried out the moorlands in many parts of Ireland. In recent weeks there have been many fires over moorland in Ireland and the UK; Limerick, Kerry, Down, and across 700 acres of Yorkshire. Moorlands (and in Ireland the boglands) are “usually” by their very nature wet and soggy places but climate change has changed all that; in these drier conditions, (along with the heather and gorse that grow on them) have become tinder-boxes.  Spring and early summer is the most dangerous time of year for gorse fires,  between i.e. March and June, when ground vegetation is dead and dry following the winter period.

The Rosses in West Donegal seems particularly vulnerable to gorse fires breaking out. Gorse is a stubborn plant with thick branches, prickly thorns and vibrant yellow flowers during the spring and summer. It is also highly flammableAt least three gorse fires broke out last week; one near Kinclassagh, one near Crolly and another near Drumnacart, Annagry, which actually destroyed two homes. 

The gorse fire that broke early in the morning on Easter Morning between Loughanure & Annagry was a different order of scary fire. The dry conditions coupled with the ever-present wind whipped it up and it quickly got out of control and spread over a large area threatened many homes. Fires in windy dry conditions will soon leap and fly. Just to complicate things there was a separate fire at Belcruit/Kinclassagh. It has since been claimed that a fire hydrant, in the village was blocked, preventing fire crews and locals from having a readily available water supply to combat the blaze. 

When this fire started 5 fire engines came to try and put it out. By the end of the day, 15 fire engines had come from all over Donegal. One fire engine even came across on the ferry from Arranmore Island. Hundreds of local volunteers also came out to help, many of them were fighting to save their own homes from being destroyed. Trenches were dug, houses were doused with water. It must have been hard, dirty and frightening work. Farmers brought slurry spreaders filled with water to douse the area. Others looked after the people fighting the flames, bringing them bottled water and food. 

Fighting the wildfire in Wst Donegal

Dousing the gorse

One fireman told a local newspaper, the Donegal Daily: “This is unreal stuff. I have battled a lot of gorse fires over the years but this is amongst the most dangerous. “Everything is bone dry and there is a strong wind so these are perfect conditions for the fires to spread rapidly.”

The local authorities and the Pat “The Cope” Gallager, the TD for Donegal, lost no time in asking (at 9.30am) for The Irish Air Corp for helicopters to help fight the fire. For some reason, they were not forthcoming. The Council waited and waited. Then a group of the firefighters fighting the separate fire near Belcruit were trapped by the flames. The area had been doused by water, so they weren’t in immediate danger, but it was a very worrying plight for them to be in. I can’t imagine what that must have been like to be surrounded by flames, like that. 

Donegal County Council decided they could not wait any longer for the Air Corps, and decided to hire a private helicopter to fight the fire. It took 7 hours before the Air Corps finally arrived from Dublin on the scene at 5pm and proceeded to scoop up 42,000 litres of water from the nearby sea and lakes and drop them on the fire. They seemed to have made all the difference. 

The Firemen at Belcruit escaped the flames when water was dropped on the fire, clearing a safe path for them. It must be a very difficult job aiming the bucket at the fire but from the video clip here, you can see the Air Corps are very good at it.

I got quite a shock when I saw the photo of Kinclassaagh below on twitter. It is a village I have painted a few times. You may be able to pick out the blue house to the left of the photograph below, which is in the centre of my painting “In the Shadow of Errigal”. The houses in the village are presumably being in doused in water in preparation of the worst-case scenario.  

Fortunately, by the evening the fire was eventually brought under control and no new fires have broken out. The images of the aftermath are shocking. So many houses are surrounded by blackened gorse. They were clearly very close to being destroyed. It must have been the stuff of nightmares for the people who lived in them.

The fire will have been devastating for local wildlife and bird populations, their chicks and nests were not saved.  This is the sort of event that Birdwatch Ireland calls “carnage in our mountains and hills, yet silence from our Government”. Rare plants whose precious seedlings have just emerged are also scorched along with hares, badgers, lizards, frogs, mice and all sorts of beetles.

Gorse Fires West Donegal 2019

The aftermath of the gorse fires

West Donegal Gorse fires

The extent of the fire

 

 

When I first heard of these terrible wildfires, I assumed that it was due to climate change and global warming. Yet, when I did a bit of research, I found that it was a bit more complicated than that. Yes, dry winters and summers are factors but it seems that there are other reasons that have contributed to this issue, not only in Ireland but in the British Isles as a whole. So it seemed to me that these issues need to be dealt with more urgently than they have been so far. For all our sakes. Tackling the problem of the gorse fires could actually help with the issue of climate change. 

Most gorse fires are started by humans, although we don’t actually know how Monday’s fires were started, and it seems pretty clear that they were not started by a local farmer.  In many cases, however, it seems that wildfires are started deliberately by landowners, or by arsonists, or even accidentally by tourists’ barbeques (as in the case of the recent fire in Yorkshire).  Northern Irish fire service estimates that in one month in 2017 they dealt with more than 500 fires, of which 466, it believed, were started deliberately.  

Gorse is so difficult to clear, its not uncommon for farmers sometimes burn the land so it can be cleared. It is currently against the law in Ireland to burn land from 28 February to 1st September. This is to protect nesting birds and their young. Paradoxically, part of the problem is that these fires don’t happen often enough. Many Irish hill farms have been abandoned or neglected and regular burning has not taken place, allowing layers of detritus to build upon the ground while gorse and heather have grown leggy, meaning that fires are harder to control. Thus, the rise in the number of gorse fires may have more to do changes in farming practices than climate change, as such.  

In an ideal world, I believe, upland farmers would not be paid to clear land but instead, be paid to grow native trees on their land. Yes, call me a tree-hugging hippy, but by reintroducing trees, shrubs, birds,  insects, and large mammals would have their ancient habitats restored. Ireland needs more trees. The world needs more trees. This is a good way to tackle climate change, instead of cutting down the rain forest at ever increasing rates. More trees also reduce the risk of flooding. A recent study by Bangor University (the one in Wales) found that water was absorbed 67 times faster by native woodland than on grass.  Once 80% of Ireland was covered in trees, now it’s only 10.5%; the lowest in Europe (the average is well over 30%). Of that native trees comprise just 2% of the total! These incredibly low numbers are primarily due to human activity in the 18th and 19th centuries, and to a lesser extent also activities in the early 20th century.

The government does plan to increase Ireland’s tiny forest cover to 18 percent by 2046, under the Strategic Plan for the Development of Forestry,  but unfortunately, the vast majority of new trees are Sitka spruce tree farms. These are non-native trees, planted in crowded, rows, robbing light from the forest floor. They do not encourage wildlife in the way that native trees would. They are barren places. They also need fertilizers and pesticides. They are patently, the wrong trees. The woodland League recently ran an excellent scheme supported by President Michael D Higgins, called “Forest In A Box”, involving 700 children in nine primary schools in Co Dublin, Co Offaly and Co Clare. The “box” in question is a native tree seed box – a metre square – which can provide up to 200 healthy native trees every two years. It would be great if this scheme could be rolled to the whole of the country, maybe there are plans to do so. 

One thing they are not short of in West Donegal is community spirit. On Monday evening, the brave people of West Donegal will come together again, for a massive clean-up operation to collect all the objects like water bottles, spades and face masks that were dropped whilst fighting last week’s fire. Yet again it will be all hands to the pump. It will also be a good opportunity for the brave, hard-working people of Donegal to “debrief” after such a traumatic experience. This fire won’t be forgotten for a long time, but fortunately, no lives were lost. 

Crainn

“Carinn n hEireann – The Trees of Ireland”

(Here’s link to a beautiful Irish language series on Irish trees, it’s well worth watching, because it’s atmospheric, poetic and informative. Click the “CC” logo on the bottom right of the screen for English subtitles )

 

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23 replies »

  1. Dear Emma,
    so good of you to write about the gorse-fires. I think it is important for people to know the risks of bbq-ing outdoors and about making a fire to ‘clean’the land for farming. And how important it is to plant trees.
    I hope you do not mind, but I have paced a link to this blog on facebook.

  2. I don’t mind at all, thank you very much, Cecile. I think That Greta Thunberg and the Extinction Rebellion protests that have been happening recently in London and across the UK has really made me think about all of this.

  3. I remember gorse in Ireland when I was a kid. I didn’t like it much. These fires are so tragic for birds, animals and humans. I agree with you that more trees would help. I also read that in Greece there are forests where they are grazing herds of goats. They eat the undergrowth that gets dry and it helps prevent the spread of fires.

    • That’s interesting that they use goats to keep the ground clear in Greece. You see quite a few goats on properties in Donegal, doing the same job but its not that widespread.

  4. Thanks for reporting on this, Emma – It’s a great reminder of the damage that mankind’s stupidity causes to the environment on a daily basis and all over the world – Must have been really scary for the local people. I do very much agree – we should all support the planting of native trees (Nothing wrong with being a tree hugger! )

    • We don’t know how these fires start, yes some are set by arsonists (some people have a thing about starting fires), other by carelessness. Ironically, I suspect that when farmers burn the gorse outside the legal period its because it hasn’t been dry enough during the winter!

      • When it’s tinder dry, it doesn’t take much to start it off….a smouldering cigarette butt, for instance ….. or something more like an incident I had with my 12 year old son and a magnifying glass and our dormant back lawn, one spring…..?!

      • I think I had a similar experience as a teenager with a bedroom lamp and a set of curtains. My father kept saying dont put them too close to curtains. Did I listen? Not, until flames were roaring up the curtains. A quick dash to the bathroom to fill a cup with water and huck it over the curtains sorted that out. Yes, a valuable life lesson there for me too!

      • Wow, THAT sounds like a story that went down in your family history, Emma! House fires are no joke, especially here in the US where pretty much every house is a timber framed building – burned out houses are a little more common than I feel comfortable with.

  5. I’ve never heard of “Gorse” before,so I Goggled it. As I suspected its very similar to something we call Broom. It appears they are related but not the same. Gorse has tiny spines along the shaft.
    The human spirit rises to the challenge no matter where we are living.

    • Yes, I have heard of Broom. I wasn;t sure if they were the same plant or not, Interesting that Gorse has spines along the shaft – that’s why its painful to pass through a lot of gorse bushes!

  6. I lived in California for a few decades and saw many large fires personally, although my property was only threatened once. It’s unfortunate that gorse is so difficult to deal with. In perpetually dry California we were required to keep all low-growing brushy plants cleared to a distance of 100 feet from houses and outbuildings. Although it didn’t always work, it wasn’t such a difficult thing to do as trying to control gorse. It’s the low-growing stuff that puts the trees in danger, although in the large forests such as Sequoia or Redwoods the trees can survive pretty much anything because they are so gigantic. A few years back a friend of mine who lived in a mountainous area wasn’t so lucky as I had been. He had gone on an errand to the post office and when he returned everything had burned to the ground. It was that quick. You could tell how hot the fire had been by the melted glass on the vehicles he couldn’t get out to safety. I sadly assume that these fires will continue to be a game-changer in the way we manage our world.

    • What a story, Alli. Your poor friend who’d popped to the post office only to return and find their house burnt to the ground! Thank God they were safe, though. Its sounds very sensible that brushy plants are cleared to a distance of 100 feet. As I was writing this, I had at the back of my mind the terrible devasations that wildfires we have had in California, Australia and Greece in recent years where people have tried and failed to outdrive wildfires. The fires move very fast. I suppose, what I found surprising about these gorse fires is that you assume that rained-soaked Ireland would be different, but that just shows how little I knew about things. I am learning.

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